Nutrition and sports
During the summer season running events have thousands of long-distance runners who want to try their strenght and capacity. Some of them are active in sports every day, others – just started their “sports career” just a few days before running. According to the experts, even up to 80 percent of the sports results depend not only from the active sports exercise and proper nutrition. When you train the body more energy is used, which must be supplemented by meal wich has more calories and higher energy value of the food ration, therefore, nutritionists and sports doctors increasingly stresses the importance of coordination of nutrition and sport. Unfortunately, often athletes ignore such advice.
People love to eat, and the feeling of hunger often defeats – no difference it is day or night, it makes you wide open the fridge. However, this is one of mistakes , especially among people who are active in sports constantly. In workout time, the stomach should be uncluttered, otherwise the body will be sluggish and it will be difficult to work out.
It is recommended to follow the optimal nutrition, eat 3 times a day and 2-3 times get some snacks between the main meals – choose a sandwich with chicken, fruit or dairy products. However, when you train hard it is important not only number of meals per day, but what kind of food is eaten.
Before workout (2-4 hours), it is recommended to eat cereal (rice, full-grain, buckwheat pasta with meat – with low fat sauce), 100 g of lean meat, a small amount of fresh vegetables, or a sandwich with chicken brest. Also don`t forget to drink 200 – 400 ml of fluid (fruit juice, natural non carbonated mineral water). If you practice endurance which causes physical stress, such as riding a bike, rowing or skiing, you can choose more carbohydrate-containing products: cereals with milk, 2 bananas with yogurt or a serving of dried fruits. At least 1 hour before you start exercises is featured light snacks. You can eat a banana, an apple, an orange, or a protein bar, but more suitable is liquid products – like: yogurt milk drink or a special drink with carbohydrates, which provide energy wich is required in the later stages of the workout. Do not eat while you do exercises. Exceptions may be made only for special sports food. Drinks containing carbohydrates and minerals, protein bars or sport jelly is recommended to eat no longer than 45 minutes before exercises.
In this case, use the most suitable products for quickly digestation and absorbation carbohydrates, such as glucose. If exercises lasts longer, 2-3 hours duration, it should be choosen a sports drink containing glucose and fructose (ratio 2:1). If exercises lasts less, drinks with consumption of carbohydrates is not necessary, but recommended just occasionally moisten your mouth with it.
Unbalanced food pyramid
In order to ensure optimal physical capacity indicators, you should rationally assess intake of food. Attention should be focused not on the amount of food, but to an adequate intake of specific nutrients. For example, for a person engaged in an amateur sport, recommended amount of carbohydrates of 5-7 mg/kg body weight, protein-1.2-1.8 g/kg body weight.
You should not consume too much fat. In their part of the supply, energy value of the food ration, should not exceed 35 per cent in total with the food intaked calories. None of the food has all necessary nutrients, so it is important to eat not only different food, but to balance your diet with all of the six food groups. It is recommended to pay attention to a sufficient fresh vegetables and fruit consumption, whereas in athletes nutrition is not enough. During the day, fresh vegetables and fruits should be consumed at least 500-600 g.
Lack of carbohydrates and proteins
One of the most common mistakes when training, is too small amount of carbohydrates in the diet. People forget that carbohydrates are the main source of energy for intense physical activity or of long duration activity. Professionals constantly recalls the importance of the lack of carbohydrates and recommends to eat more of the full-grain foods, fresh fruits and vegetables.
The truth is, it is appropriate to bear in mind also protein food, which during exercises helps increase muscle mass. It should be combined animal (poultry, beef, fish, milk and dairy products) and vegetable protein sources of food (grain, leguminous foods). About 40% of the protein in the diet needs to be plant origin – and 60% products of animal origin, whereas animal origin is better absorbed by the body. In addition, if physical exercise is intensely for more than 60 minutes per day, it may be used protein food supplements. The most effective of them is a mixture of milk whey, which helps to ensure the process of protein synthesis in muscle tissue.
Keep in mind that the protein food supplements cannot be overdose, 20-30 g dose is fully sufficient for forming.
Too much high-fat food
Greasy food is the source of energy, however, such as fatty cuts of meat or fat fried fries, complicates the process of digestion, so after eating that kind of food, it stands in the stomach and to do exerciseses becomes more difficult. For example, pan fried meat is not a valid choice, especially with the skin. It is advised to choose a pot or steam cooked poultry without skin, or chicken tights. It is suitable and oven-fried chicken, but you don’t have to roll it in the flour or breadcrumbs. Therefore, experts recommend to choose less fat, especially saturated fatty acids-containing food. Animal fats change to vegetable fats, addressing to adequate and balanced Omega-3, Omega-6 and Omega-9 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.
Insufficient quantity of water
Water is one of the most important components of physical exercise, as it regulates body temperature. This is why body need to maintain proper fluid balance, and it is need to drink about 2 litres of water per day. Intense or long duration training athletes drinking too little water, so their body can sometimes lead to minor or moderate degree of dehydration, which leads to an increased sweating. It is recommended in time of sports to drink no more than 750 ml drink in 3 times, every 15-20 minutes. In the hot conditions and training for more than 1 hour, the drinks should contain sodium.
Fast food in nutritional diet
Modern society lives in tight rhythm of life when people are increasingly opting for fast food, which does not have any good properties and only momentarily soothes your hunger. It should be known that this food leads to digestive disorders, damages heart and promote obesity, so it should be removed from the food ration not only if you decided to train and do exercises, but in all other cases.
Common active person, occasionally does not avoid to drink a couple of beers or to smoke some cigarettes, believing that the small quantity of these products do not affect teir body. But it is very harmful and toxic substances even at low doses, therefore it is necessary to get rid of it for the whole life. It is important to realize that the food is intended not only to quench the hunger, but also it helps to ensure the optimal use of the body’s energy, nutritional and biologically active substances.
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